extremely advanced development in agronomy, medicine, engineering and architecture more than 5,000 years ago.
Archaeologists believe that Caral was one of the earliest advanced civilizations in America (Image: Wikipedia)
Archaeologists recognize that Caral was one of the earliest advanced civilizations in the Americas, and Americans saw it as a kind of connection without a form of writing, so this civilization played a role. very important.
About 5,000 years ago, ancient Peruvians settled in Caral and created one of the most advanced and oldest civilizations in South America. Their knowledge lingered in a number of fields of science that are still baffling to many researchers today, who still cannot answer the great development and mystery left behind by the South American civilization. .
According to researcher Ruth Shady, the ancient inhabitants of Caral have built laboratories for agricultural scheduling and climate forecasting. This allows them to determine the start and end time of cultivation and harvest, as well as to predict changes in nature so Caral residents can adapt to it.
Caral first became a topic in 2001, because that year for the first time archaeologists and researchers found the fossil material left behind by Caral citadel in 2627 BC. However, the fact that these materials were discovered in 1905, proved the theory of ancient Peruvian cultural age. They have intricate pyramids, squares and circular stairs, enough to show the knowledge and power of this ancient culture.
According to archeologists, Caral’s pyramid has the same age as the Egyptian pyramid (3200 BC). These intricate structures demonstrate the ingenuity and intelligence of the ancients, at which time they were able to build incredible structures, such as elaborate monuments, showing proficiency. organization and high-tech design of the designer of the time. It is also preserved in very good condition, probably because it was found late, and also because of the lack of gold and silver products, so no theft is possible. The level of urban planning, monuments and residences of elites shows clear traces of ancient rituals, and also tells us that Caral had a strong religious ideology.
Andina said: “In terms of energy exploration and dynamics, Caral uses the wind, now called the Venturi effect, to direct wind through a fire tunnel to create a high temperature environment. ”
The researchers said the Venturi effect was invented in 1740, but it was a mystery until more than 5,000 years ago that ancient inhabitants had this technology.
On the pharmacological side, the people of Caral know to take advantage of an active ingredient in the willow tree, aspirin, to cure headache symptoms.
Another highlight is the development in wooden architectural techniques, which is amazing because more than 5,000 years ago ancient scientists knew how to apply anti-earthquake technology to architectural works.
Speaking of Caral civilization, we must mention that the most important point is that they have no weapons, no incomplete bodies, or any signs of the presence of war. Caral is a very open and highly developed culture, and is also the oldest metropolis in the western hemisphere.
What is a quantum computer and why is it super-computationally capable?
Expected to radically change the rules of computers, quantum computers are expected to provide millions of times more computing power than conventional computers.
In recent years, companies such as IBM, Google, Microsoft, D-wave have all announced new steps for quantum computers, especially IBM has started bringing quantum 5 qubit computers to the “cloud.” cloud ”so users around the world can get used to and test the power of computers. Besides, quantum programming languages as well as quantum computer-based software development platforms are also paid special attention to companies.
However, like quantum mechanics, quantum computers are still very confusing and vague to everyone. This article will introduce you to basic information about quantum computers and their applicability.
Part 1: Basic principles of quantum mechanics used in quantum computers
Particle duality of matter
One of the most important concepts of quantum mechanics is: for some reason, particles at the atomic (atomic, molecular) and subatomic level (nuclei, protons, electrons, photons) …) has both wave and particle properties.
The most basic experiment that proves the particle wave duality of matter is the quantum double slit experiment:
If you send a beam of particles flying through two parallel openings to the wall, on which the detector is attached, you will detect a band of light trails that will appear. It is called an interference pattern due to the diffraction of the particles when passing through this double slit.
Like the wave, particles passing through one gap diffuse the waves passing through the other. If the peak (maximum amplitude) of the wave from one slot coincides with the bottom (minimum amplitude) of the wave from the other gap, they will cancel each other out and not show on the screen. If the two peaks coincide, they add up the vector and create a light trail on the wall, also known as the wave superposition of particles.
Spin: Momentum torque does not exist in classical physics
In 1925, Dutch physicists George Uhlenbeck and Samuel Goudsmit discovered that electrons had a special kind of motion that produced magnetic properties in accordance with the measurements: rotation, or also known as spin.
The two men wrote a short paper, concluding that “the electrons both spin and rotate.” According to the short article, each electron in the universe always and forever rotates at a fixed rate. Therefore they always have their own specific moment of momentum (hereinafter referred to as spin). Spin is a purely quantum concept, with no correspondence in classical mechanics.
The concept of spin was later shown to be in conflict with relativity. However, no matter how the source generates spin, the spins of all the particles that make up the physical world, such as electrons and quarks, are zero and equal to khác / 2 (ħ is the plank constant). , referred to as 1/2. Particles such as photons have a spin of 1 … Thus, spin is an intrinsic feature of the particle, which is inherent to the same mass and charge characteristic of that particle. If an electron has no spin, it is no longer an electron.
Quantum superposition (or quantum superposition, quantum layering) is the application of the principle of superposition to quantum mechanics. The principle of superposition is the addition of the vectors to the wave vectors in the interference. In quantum mechanics, wave function vectors, or state vectors are added.
Specifically, quantum superposition can be stated as “if a quantum system can be detected in one of two states, A and B with different properties, it can also be detected in a state. their combined states, aA + bB, where a and b are any numbers ”.
With the double slit experiment mentioned above, quantum physicists also found that the interference or superposition of particles still appearing after the slit sometimes emits only one electron at a time. This means that an electron also produces the phenomenon of superposition of its own states.
This is applied to quantum computers by creating quantum bits (quantum bits), qubit for short. Quantum computer inventors use a particle as a qubit, and the spin state up or down corresponds to the state of the qubit.
The Bloch sphere is a sphere with a unit radius. It is used to represent qubits visually. The position of each qubit is clearly determined through the parameters Φ and θ (photo: wikipedia.org)
Unlike a transistor-based digital computer that requires encoding data into binary digits, each number is assigned to one of the two states of 0 or 1, quantum computation using bits. The quantum is in a superposition state for calculation. This means that a quantum bit can have a value of 0 and 1 at the same time, ie the quantum superposition of the qubit occurs.
To explain this, imagine that a coin is tossing. Before it lands on the front or the back, it will spin through the air at an extremely fast speed. And when it is spinning like that, at a given time you determine the face of the coin, it will have both states, tails and heads.
Thus, if a computer has 2 qubits, at one point it will have 22 = 4 states, 3 qubits will have 23 = 8 states, N qubits will have 2N qubit states simultaneously. This means that the quantum N qubit computer will have the equivalent of the power of 2N computers running in parallel. This explains why quantum computers are capable of calculating extremely fast compared to conventional computers.
Theoretically, a computer with lots of qubits is capable of handling an extremely large number of tasks such as arithmetic operations or performing an extremely large database search in a much faster time than computers. usually, common, normal.
A quantum computer can quickly solve the complex problems that supercomputers today have not found for many millions of years.
Quantum entanglement or quantum entanglement is an effect in quantum mechanics in which the quantum states of two or more objects are related, even if they are far apart. For example, two objects can be created so that if the spin of the first object is observed spinning downwards, the spin of the other object will have to spin upwards, or vice versa; although quantum mechanics does not predict the results of measurements on the first object. This means that the measurement made on this object will directly affect the quantum state on the quantum entangled object with it.
This effect, confirmed by empirical observation, also causes a change in perception that information about an object does not necessarily only change by interacting with objects close to it. It also leads to another problem, that the speed of communication between the two so that a quantum entanglement will be faster than the speed of light. This is so bizarre that the scientist Einstein called it a “remote bizarre effect”.
The difference of qubits from the classical bits is not only in the continuous variation of value through quantum superposition, but also in the fact that many qubits can exist and relate to each other through the phenomenon of tangles. quantum . This entanglement can occur at a macro distance between qubits, allowing them to represent multiple overlaps of multiple character sequences (eg, 01010 and 11111 overlaps). This “quantum parallel” property is the basic strength of quantum computers.
By solving the motion integrals for the density matrix, applying approximations, it has been shown that the state representation on one free qubit is also influenced by the states of the other. Establishing these equations in particular will give us a mechanism for transmitting information about qubits.
The collapse of the wave function
In experiments with quantum double slits, scientists not only proved the existence of wave-particle duality of matter, but also discovered a very strange problem, namely collapsing phenomenon. Pouring of wave function:
When emitting one electron at a time, without the observation of the device and humans at the double slit, the electron would seem to “split” and pass through both slits to create a state of overlapping states. Quantum spin as particles.
But when there are human observation devices, the electron will only pass through a double slit and will not cause particle wave superposition on the rear screen. In this case, the electron acts merely like a particle, or it can be said that its wave properties are gone. People call this phenomenon the collapse of the wave function.
In quantum computers, quantum state measurements need to be made to determine qubit values at a time, which leads to the collapse of the overlapping state of qubits (decoherence), which causes The qubit’s superposition takes place shortly before collapse and takes a long time to recover. This is one of the major challenges in building quantum computers.